The percentage of cow milk: determination and increase
Dairy farming is one of the most profitable industries in agriculture. Products obtained from under the cow are not only tasty, but also healthy. However, few people know how many actually useful substances are part of milk and what to do so that the fat content is at the right level. We hope our article will help you figure this out.
Characteristics of Cow's Milk
The most traditional product in the diet is cow's milk. He has been present with us since infancy - milk porridges, kefir, cottage cheese, yogurt and other products. Consider which beneficial components are included in the composition and what types of fat content of this dairy product are known.
The nutritional value per 100 g of whole cow's milk consists of the following indicators:
- energy value - 58 kcal;
- water - 88 g;
- proteins - 2.8 g;
- fats - 3.25 g;
- carbohydrates - 5.2 g;
- Vitamin A - 0.01 mg;
- thiamine - 0.04 mg;
- riboflavin - 0.18 mg;
- cobalamin - 0.44 mcg;
- vitamin C - 1.3 mg;
- Vitamin D - 2 IU;
- calcium - 113 mg;
- magnesium - 14 mg;
- potassium - 146 mg;
- sodium - 50 mg;
- phosphorus - 90 mg;
- iron - 0.06 mg.
Types of Fat
Evaluation of the quality of natural milk is determined by the indicator of milk fat, which is measured in percent. Today, several types of this product are distinguished, which are divided depending on the percentage of fat in its composition. This indicator is significant for different nutrition, as well as other areas of use.
Did you know? If you can’t get cow milk of a certain fat content, you can take goat. It has an indicator of 4 to 9%, in addition, it contains the same amount of useful elements and is digested in the same way as a cow.
Today, the product is divided into the following categories:
- up to 1% - low fat, drink people who avoid fatty foods;
- up to 2% - a low percentage, however, the most popular product used in various fields;
- 3,5% - the average norm in determining the indicator of a paired product immediately after milking;
- from 4.5 to 6% - high fat content, which only certain breeds of cows give;
- 10% - maximum fat content, presented in the form of cream.
What determines the fat content of milk in a cow
The average amount of fat in a home product is 3.5%.
Important! The most useful dairy product is the one that is consumed immediately after milking, the second name is fresh milk. Its fat content is average and is 3.5%.
- breed of animal;
- quality of feed consumed;
- living conditions;
- tribal heritage;
- grazing time;
- age and health of the cow;
- the presence in the diet of fertilizing;
- climatic conditions of detention;
- number of calving;
- daily milk yield.
Genetics determines the maximum possible amount of fat of dairy products for a certain type of cow, based on the fact that even within the herd quite serious phenotypic variability is possible. To avoid this, breeders conduct strict selection according to certain criteria, allowing for subsequent breeding of animals that are most suitable for the indicators.
Did you know? A kilogram of natural butter is made from 21 liters of milk, and the same amount of cheese is made from 10 liters of this product.
Breed is an important factor that affects the quality indicators of a product. For example, the more milk a cow gives, the lower their percentage of fat, and vice versa.
The issue of increasing the fat content of milk is relevant for all owners of these animals.In this matter, it is important to pay maximum attention to animal nutrition, as it is known that feed affects milk production, taste, and other indicators of production. To get a large percentage of fat, you need to give the animal the following types of feed:
- hay made from legumes and cereals of good quality;
- feed in the presence of fiber in large quantities;
- light carbohydrates in an amount of not more than 10%;
- vitamins and trace elements - Ca, Zn, P and vitamins.
However, there are feeds that are strictly forbidden to be abused, since they can achieve a different result, they include:
Experts are sure that the age of cows is reflected in the fat content of the product. It is known that the best indicator is obtained after the 6th calving. The rapid growth of the indicator occurs after the 5th calving. In addition, young cows give the product much fatter than old.
The season of the year directly affects the fat content of milk. It changes significantly depending on when the milk yield is carried out - in winter or summer. This is due to the fact that in the cold season, animals do not have the opportunity to consume fresh grass, which contains a lot of liquid, and to move a lot, respectively, they absorb a lot of concentrated feed with additives, which affects the level of fat in the product.
How to determine fat content at home
It is not easy to know the exact fat content of milk without equipment. Independently at home you can get only an approximate indicator.
To identify the amount of fat, the following actions are carried out:
- Take a transparent glass, wash it well and dry it.
- Set the line at 10 cm.
- Pour fresh milk and leave for 8 hours in a warm room ;.
- After time, using a ruler, measure the layer of cream that appears on top.
Why did the milk fat content of a cow drop
Product oiliness may fall as a result of the following factors:
- problems with food, namely low consumption of fiber and roughage, with an excess of fat, oil and sugar in the diet;
- lack of energy;
- poor feed;
- season of the year season;
- lactation period;
- problems with milking equipment.
How to increase milk fat
Milk fat can be increased using the following tricks during milking:
- The first drops contain up to 1% fat, it is usually squeezed into a separate container. This will not only increase the amount of fat, but also provide complete hygiene to the process.
- The last drops are the fattest. To do this, it is important to massage before each milking and completely finish it.
- During dead wood, a balanced fattening is carried out. It is important to use quality feed or to cook it yourself.
- At home, use a separator.
Using the right feed
Initially, you can increase the fat content of milk by changing the diet of animals. Usually it is enough to maximize the amount of green, juicy and roughage, which will significantly improve the quality of milk production. In the warm season, animals try to keep the maximum amount of time on the grass forbs, because they know exactly what kind of grass they need.
Important! You can’t increase the fat content of milk due to the amount of concentrated feed, as this will lead to weight gain in the cow. And in this state they are very reluctant to milk. In addition, the growth of starchy components in the product increases.
In addition to this, the abundance of the sun and physical activity make milk even better. In winter, herbs are provided by harvesting hay, grass meal, straw and silage, as well as root crops and vegetables.In addition, they give mixers and cereals with boiled potatoes and other root crops.It is important that the amount of hay does not exceed 20% of the total diet, otherwise the indicator of the amount of fat will drop to 0.5%. Knowing what to feed, you need to understand what conditions of detention must be observed.
The highest fat content of milk is present in cows, which are bred by a livestock or pasture breeding method. Forced movement, an increase in the amount of sun, consumption of fresh feed and an abundance of greenery contribute to an increase in this indicator. The taste of real milk is impossible to confuse. The recommendations given in the article will help to make your cow give products with a good indicator of fat content.